Articles of Association for a charitable company limited by guarantee and not having a share capital
1 The company’s name is
Campaign for Science and Engineering
(and in this document, it is called the ‘charity’).
2 In the articles:
‘address’ means a postal address or, for the purposes of electronic communication, a fax number, an e-mail or postal address or a telephone number for receiving text messages notified to the charity;
‘the articles’ means the charity’s articles of association;
‘authorised representative’ means a representative appointed by a member which is an organisation pursuant to article 26;
‘bye-laws’ means the bye-laws of the charity made by the directors pursuant to article 57;
“Chair” means a person elected to that officer role in accordance with the bye-laws;
‘clear days’ in relation to the period of a notice means a period excluding:
• the day when the notice is given or deemed to be given; and
• the day for which it is given or on which it is to take effect;
‘the Commission’ means the Charity Commission for England and Wales;
‘Companies Acts’ means the Companies Acts (as defined in section 2 of the Companies Act 2006) insofar as they apply to the charity;
“Deputy Chair” means a person elected to that officer role in accordance with the bye-laws;
‘the directors’ means the directors of the company and the trustees of the charity.
‘document’ includes, unless otherwise specified, any document sent or supplied in electronic form;
‘electronic form’ has the meaning given in section 1168 of the Companies Act 2006;
‘memorandum’ means the charity’s memorandum of association;
‘executive team’ means the senior manager of the charity (as defined by the Charity Commission) or such other paid staff of the charity to whom a function has been delegated
‘the United Kingdom’ means Great Britain and Northern Ireland; and
words importing one gender shall include all genders, and the singular includes the plural and vice versa.
Unless the context otherwise requires words or expressions contained in the articles have the same meaning as in the Companies Acts but excluding any statutory modification not in force when this constitution becomes binding on the charity.
Apart from the exception mentioned in the previous paragraph a reference to an Act of Parliament includes any statutory modification or re-enactment of it for the time being in force.
Liability of members
3 The liability of the members is limited to a sum not exceeding £1, being the amount that each member undertakes to contribute to the assets of the charity in the event of its being wound up while he, she or it is a member or within one year after he, she or it ceases to be a member, for:
(1) payment of the charity’s debts and liabilities incurred before he, she or it ceases to be a member;
(2) payment of the costs, charges and expenses of winding up; and
(3) adjustment of the rights of the contributories among themselves.
4 The charity’s objects (‘Objects’) are:
To promote science and engineering and to highlight the importance of these fields, including by investigating and comment, for the public benefit, on any proposals and actions of individuals, organisations, companies, and governments, in the European Union, and particularly Her Majesty’s Government in the United Kingdom, especially within the following areas as they apply to science and engineering: research and development funding; education; the use of science and engineering for public policy; diversity; and economic issues.
Nothing in the articles shall authorise an application of the property of the charity for purposes which are not charitable in accordance with section 7 of the Charities and Trustee Investment (Scotland) Act 2005 and/or section 2 of the Charities Act (Northern Ireland) 2008.
5 The charity has power to do anything which is calculated to further its Object(s) or is conducive or incidental to doing so. In particular, the charity has power:
(1) to raise funds. In doing so, the charity must not undertake any taxable permanent trading activity and must comply with any relevant statutory regulations;
(2) to buy, take on lease or in exchange, hire or otherwise acquire any property and to maintain and equip it for use;
(3) to sell, lease or otherwise dispose of all or any part of the property belonging to the charity. In exercising this power, the charity must comply as appropriate with the relevant charity legislation;
(4) to borrow money and to charge the whole or any part of the property belonging to the charity as security for repayment of the money borrowed or as security for a grant or the discharge of an obligation;
(5) to co-operate with other charities, voluntary bodies and statutory authorities and to exchange information and advice with them;
(6) to establish or support any charitable trusts, associations or institutions formed for any of the charitable purposes included in the Objects;
(7) to acquire, merge with or to enter into any partnership or joint venture arrangement with any other charity;
(8) to set aside income as a reserve against future expenditure but only in accordance with a written policy about reserves;
(9) to employ and remunerate such staff as are necessary for carrying out the work of the charity. The charity may employ or remunerate a director only as permitted to do so by these articles;
(a) deposit or invest funds;
(b) employ a professional fund-manager; and
(c) arrange for the investments or other property of the charity to be held in the name of a nominee;
(11) to provide indemnity insurance for the directors.
(12) to pay out of the funds of the charity the costs of forming and registering the charity both as a company and as a charity.
(13) to do all such other things as are incidental to the attainment or furtherance of said objects
Application of income and property
6 (1) The income and property of the charity shall be applied solely towards the promotion of the Objects.
(2) (a) A director is entitled to be reimbursed from the property of the charity or may pay out of such property reasonable expenses properly incurred by him or her when acting on behalf of the charity.
(b) A director may benefit from trustee indemnity insurance cover purchased at the charity’s expense in accordance with charity legislation.
(c) A director may receive an indemnity from the charity in the circumstances specified in these articles.
(d) A director may not receive any other benefit or payment unless it is authorised by these articles.
(3) Subject to these articles, none of the income or property of the charity may be paid or transferred directly or indirectly by way of dividend bonus or otherwise by way of profit to any member of the charity. This does not prevent a member who is not also a director receiving:
(a) a benefit from the charity in the capacity of a beneficiary of the charity;
(b) reasonable and proper remuneration for any goods or services supplied to the charity.
Benefits and payments to charity directors and connected persons
7 (1) General provisions
No director or connected person may:
(a) buy any goods or services from the charity on terms preferential to those applicable to members of the public;
(b) sell goods, services, or any interest in land to the charity;
(c) be employed by, or receive any remuneration from, the charity; or
(d) receive any other financial benefit from the charity,
unless the benefit or payment is permitted by article 7(2), is authorised by the court or the prior written consent of the Commission has been obtained.
In this article 7(1) a ‘financial benefit’ means a benefit, direct or indirect, which is either money or has a monetary value.
(2) Scope and powers permitting directors’ or connected persons’ benefits
A director or connected person may enter into a contract for the supply of services, or of goods that are supplied in connection with the provision of services, to the charity where that is permitted in accordance with, and subject to the conditions in, sections 185 and 186 of the Charities Act 2011.
Declaration of directors’ interests
8 A charity director must declare the nature and extent of any interest, direct or indirect, which he or she has in a proposed transaction or arrangement with the charity or in any transaction or arrangement entered into by the charity which has not previously been declared. A director must absent himself or herself from any discussions of the charity directors in which it is possible that a conflict will arise between his or her duty to act solely in the interests of the charity and any personal interest (including but not limited to any personal financial interest).
Conflicts of interests and conflicts of loyalties
9 (1) If a conflict of interests arises for a director because of a duty of loyalty owed to another organisation or person and the conflict is not authorised by virtue of any other provision in the articles, the unconflicted directors may authorise such a conflict of interests where the following conditions apply:
(a) the conflicted director is absent from the part of the meeting at which there is discussion of any arrangement or transaction affecting that other organisation or person;
(b) the conflicted director does not vote on any such matter and is not to be counted when considering whether a quorum of directors is present at the meeting; and
(c) the unconflicted directors consider it is in the interests of the charity to authorise the conflict of interests in the circumstances applying.
(2) In this article a conflict of interests arising because of a duty of loyalty owed to another organisation or person only refers to such a conflict which does not involve a direct or indirect benefit of any nature to a director or to a connected person.
10 (1) The subscribers to the memorandum are the first members of the charity.
(2) Membership is open to other individuals or organisations who:
(a) apply to the charity in the form required by the directors; and
(b) are approved by the directors.
(3) (a) The directors may only refuse an application for membership if, acting reasonably and properly, they consider it to be in the best interests of the charity to refuse the application.
(b) The directors must inform the applicant in writing of the refusal within the timeframe outlined in the bye-laws.
(4) Membership is not transferable.
(5) The directors must keep a register of names and addresses of the members.
(6) The directors may delegate any or all of these responsibilities to the executive team in accordance with the bye-laws.
Classes of membership
11 The directors may establish classes of membership with different rights and obligations and shall record these in the register of members. The classes and accompanying rights and duties shall be determined by the directors from time to time and published as specified in the bye-laws.
Termination of membership
12 (1) Membership is terminated if:
(a) the member dies or, if it is an organisation, ceases to exist;
(b) the member resigns by written notice to the charity unless, after the resignation, there would be fewer than two members;
(c) any sum due from the member to the charity is not paid in the timeframe specified in the bye-laws;
(d) the member is removed from membership by a resolution of the directors that it is in the best interests of the charity that his or her or its membership is terminated. A resolution to remove a member from membership may only be passed if:
(i) the member has been given at least fourteen clear days’ notice in writing of the meeting of the directors at which the resolution will be proposed and the reasons why it is to be proposed;
(ii) the member or, at the option of the member, the member’s representative (who need not be a member of the charity) has been allowed to make representations to the meeting.
(2) A person who is removed from membership under article 12(1) (c) may be re-admitted at the discretion of the directors, subject to paying all subscriptions in arrears and any other sum required by the directors.
13 An annual general meeting must be held in each year and not more than eighteen months may elapse between successive annual general meetings.
14 The directors may call a general meeting at any time.
Notice of general meetings
15 (1) The minimum periods of notice required to hold a general meeting of the charity are:
(a) twenty-one clear days for an annual general meeting;
(b) fourteen clear days for all other general meetings, including a general meeting called for the passing of a special resolution.
(2) A general meeting may be called by shorter notice if it is so agreed by a majority in number of members having a right to attend and vote at the meeting, being a majority who together hold not less than 90 percent of the total voting rights.
(3) The notice must specify the date time and place of the meeting and the general nature of the business to be transacted. If the meeting is to be an annual general meeting, the notice must say so. The notice must also containa statement setting out the right of members to appoint a proxy under these articles.
(4) The notice must be given to all the members and to the directors and auditors (if any).
16 The proceedings at a meeting shall not be invalidated because a person who was entitled to receive notice of the meeting did not receive it because of an accidental omission by the charity.
Proceedings at general meetings
17 (1) No business shall be transacted at any general meeting unless a quorum is present.
(2) A quorum is 15 members present in person or by proxy or by authorised representative and entitled to vote upon the business to be conducted at the meeting; or
(a) a quorum is not present within half an hour from the time appointed for the meeting; or
(b) during a meeting a quorum ceases to be present
the meeting shall be adjourned to such time and place as the directors shall determine.
(4) The directors must reconvene the meeting and must give at least seven clear days’ notice of the reconvened meeting stating the date, time and place of the meeting.
(5) If no quorum is present at the reconvened meeting within fifteen minutes of the time specified for the start of the meeting the members present in person or by proxy or by authorised representative at that time shall constitute the quorum for that meeting.
19 (1) General meetings shall be chaired by the Chair.
(2) If there is no Chair or he or she is not present within fifteen minutes of the time appointed for the meeting the Deputy Chair shall chair the meeting.
(3) If there is no Deputy Chair or he or she is present and willing to chair the meeting within fifteen minutes after the time appointed for holding it, the members present in person or by proxy or by authorised representative and entitled to vote must choose one of their number to chair the meeting.
20 (1) The members present in person or by proxy or by authorised representative at a meeting may resolve by ordinary resolution that the meeting shall be adjourned.
(2) The person who is chairing the meeting must decide the date, time and place at which the meeting is to be reconvened unless those details are specified in the resolution.
(3) No business shall be conducted at a reconvened meeting unless it could properly have been conducted at the meeting had the adjournment not taken place.
(4) If a meeting is adjourned by a resolution of the members for more than seven days, at least seven clear days’ notice shall be given of the reconvened meeting stating the date, time and place of the meeting.
21 (1) Any vote at a meeting shall be decided by a show of hands unless before, or on the declaration of the result of, the show of hands a poll is demanded:
(a) by the person chairing the meeting; or
(b) by at least two members present in person or by proxy or by authorised representative and having the right to vote at the meeting; or
(2) (a) The declaration by the person who is chairing the meeting of the result of a vote shall be conclusive unless a poll is demanded.
(b) The result of the vote must be recorded in the minutes of the charity, but the number or proportion of votes cast need not be recorded.
(3) (a) A demand for a poll may be withdrawn, before the poll is taken, but only with the consent of the person who is chairing the meeting.
(b) If the demand for a poll is withdrawn the demand shall not invalidate the result of a show of hands declared before the demand was made.
(4) (a) A poll must be taken as the person who is chairing the meeting directs, who may appoint scrutineers (who need not be members) and who may fix a time and place for declaring the results of the poll.
(b) The result of the poll shall be deemed to be the resolution of the meeting at which the poll is demanded.
(5) (a) A poll demanded on the election of a person to chair a meeting or on a question of adjournment must be taken immediately.
(b) A poll demanded on any other question must be taken either immediately or at such time and place as the person who is chairing the meeting directs.
(c) The poll must be taken within thirty days after it has been demanded.
(d) If the poll is not taken immediately at least seven clear days’ notice shall be given specifying the time and place at which the poll is to be taken.
(e) If a poll is demanded the meeting may continue to deal with any other business that may be conducted at the meeting.
Content of proxy notices
22 (1) Proxies may only validly be appointed by a notice in writing (a ‘proxy notice’) which –
(a) states the name and address of the member appointing the proxy;
(b) identifies the person appointed to be that member’s proxy and the general meeting in relation to which that person is appointed;
(c) is signed by or on behalf of the member appointing the proxy, or is authenticated in such manner as the directors may determine; and
(d) is delivered to the charity in accordance with the articles and any instructions contained in the notice of the general meeting to which they relate.
(2) The directors may require proxy notices to be delivered in a particular form and may specify different forms for different purposes.
(3) Proxy notices may specify how the proxy appointed under them is to vote (or that the proxy is to abstain from voting) on one or more resolutions.
(4) Unless a proxy notice indicates otherwise, it must be treated as –
(a) allowing the person appointed under it as a proxy discretion as to how to vote on any ancillary or procedural resolutions put to the meeting; and
(b) appointing that person as a proxy in relation to any adjournment of the general meeting to which it relates as well as the meeting itself.
Delivery of proxy notices
22A (1) A person who is entitled to attend, speak or vote (either on a show of hands or on a poll) at a general meeting remains so entitled in respect of that meeting or any adjournment of it, even though a valid proxy notice has been delivered to the charity by or on behalf of that person.
(2) An appointment under a proxy notice may be revoked by delivering to the charity a notice in writing given by or on behalf of the person by whom or on whose behalf the proxy notice was given.
(3) A notice revoking a proxy appointment only takes effect if it is delivered before the start of the meeting or adjourned meeting to which it relates.
(4) If a proxy notice is not executed by the person appointing the proxy, it must be accompanied by written evidence of the authority of the person who executed it to execute it on the appointor’s behalf.
23 (1) A resolution in writing agreed by a simple majority (or in the case of a special resolution by a majority of not less than 75%) of the members who would have been entitled to vote upon it had it been proposed at a general meeting shall be effective provided that:
(a) a copy of the proposed resolution has been sent to every eligible member;
(b) a simple majority (or in the case of a special resolution a majority of not less than 75%) of members has signified its agreement to the resolution; and
(c) it is contained in an authenticated document which has been received at the registered office within the period of 28 days beginning with the circulation date.
(2) A resolution in writing may comprise several copies to which one or more members have signified their agreement.
(3) In the case of a member that is an organisation, its authorised representative may signify its agreement.
Votes of members
24 Subject to these articles, every member, whether an individual or an organisation, shall have one vote.
25 Any objection to the qualification of any voter must be raised at the meeting at which the vote is tendered and the decision of the person who is chairing the meeting shall be final.
26 (1) Any organisation that is a member of the charity may nominate any person to
act as its representative at any meeting of the charity.
(2) The organisation must give written notice to the charity of the name of its representative. The representative shall not be entitled to represent the organisation at any meeting unless the notice has been received by the charity. The representative may continue to represent the organisation until written notice to the contrary is received by the charity.
(3) Any notice given to the charity will be conclusive evidence that the representative is entitled to represent the organisation or that his or her authority has been revoked. The charity shall not be required to consider whether the representative has been properly appointed by the organisation.
27 (1) A director must be a natural person aged 16 years or older.
(2) No one may be appointed a director if he or she would be disqualified from acting under the provisions of these articles.
28 The minimum number of directors shall be six, and the maximum shall be fifteen.
29 The first directors shall be those persons notified to Companies House as the first directors of the charity.
30 A director may not appoint an alternate director or anyone to act on his or her behalf at meetings of the directors.
Powers of directors
31 (1) The directors shall manage the business of the charity and may exercise all the powers of the charity unless they are subject to any restrictions imposed by the Companies Acts or the articles.
(2) No alteration of the articles shall have retrospective effect to invalidate any prior act of the directors.
(3) Any meeting of directors at which a quorum is present at the time the relevant decision is made may exercise all the powers exercisable by the directors.
Term of office of directors
32 (1) The terms of office of the officers and other directors are set out in the bye-laws.
(2) The bye-laws shall specify when the retirement of a director shall take effect.
Election of directors and officers
33 The directors shall be elected by the members in accordance with the bye-laws.
34 The officers (which shall include a Chair and Deputy Chair) shall be elected by the directors from among the directors in accordance with the bye-laws.
35 All members who are entitled to receive notice of a general meeting must be given notice of their right to vote in the election of a director in accordance with the bye-laws.
36 (1) The directors may appoint a person who is willing to act to be a director.
(2) A director appointed by a resolution of the other directors must retire at the next annual general meeting but may be re-appointed at this meeting and from this point may serve a full term of office.
37 The appointment of a director, whether by the charity in general meeting or by the other directors, must not cause the number of directors to exceed any number fixed as the maximum number of directors.
Disqualification and removal of directors
38 A director shall cease to hold office if he or she:
(1) ceases to be a director by virtue of any provision in the Companies Acts or is prohibited by law from being a director;
(2) is disqualified from acting as a trustee by virtue of the Charities Act 2011
(3) ceases to be a member of the charity;
(4) becomes incapable by reason of mental disorder, illness or injury of managing and administering his or her own affairs;
(5) resigns as a director by notice to the charity (but only if at least two directors will remain in office when the notice of resignation is to take effect);
(6) is absent without the permission of the directors from all their meetings held within a period of six consecutive months and the directors resolve that his or her office be vacated; or
(7) is determined by the directors that he or she is not acting in the best interests of the charity, for example, acting in a way that runs counter to the aims and Objects of the charity.
Remuneration of directors
39 The directors must not be paid any remuneration unless it is authorised by these articles.
Proceedings of directors
40 (1) The directors may regulate their proceedings as they think fit, subject to the provisions of the articles.
(2) Any director may call a meeting of the directors.
(3) Questions arising at a meeting shall be decided by a majority of votes.
(4) In the case of an equality of votes, the person who is chairing the meeting shall have a second casting vote.
(5) A meeting may be held by suitable electronic means agreed by the directors in which each participant may communicate with all the other participants.
41 (1) No decision may be made by a meeting of the directors unless a quorum is present at the time the decision is purported to be made. ‘Present’ includes being present by suitable electronic means agreed by the directors in which a participant or participants may communicate with all the other participants.
(2) The quorum shall be four, or the number nearest to one-third of the total number of directors, whichever is the smaller, or such larger number as may be decided from time to time by the directors.
(3) A director shall not be counted in the quorum present when any decision is made about a matter upon which that director is not entitled to vote.
42 If the number of directors is less than the number fixed as the quorum, the continuing directors or director may act only for the purpose of filling vacancies or of calling an election of directors by the members.
43 (1) The Chair shall chair meetings of the directors.
(2) If no-one has been appointed as Chair or if the Chair is unwilling to preside or is not present within ten minutes after the time appointed for the meeting, the Deputy Chair shall chair that meeting.
(3) If no one has been appointed as Deputy Chair or if the Deputy Chair is unwilling to preside or is not present within ten minutes after the time appointed for the meeting, the directors present may appoint one of their number to chair that meeting.
(4) The Chair or Deputy Chair shall have no functions or powers except those conferred by the articles or delegated to him or her by the directors.
44 (1) A resolution in writing or in electronic form agreed by all of the directors entitled to receive notice of a meeting of the directors and to vote upon the resolution shall be as valid and effectual as if it had been passed at a meeting of the directors duly convened and held.
(2) The resolution in writing may comprise several documents containing the text of the resolution in like form to each of which one or more directors has signified their agreement.
45 (1) The directors may delegate any of their powers or functions to a committee comprising at least two directors and such other persons as the directors determine but the terms of and delegation must be recorded, and they may not delegate responsibility for the results of such delegation.
(2) The directors may impose conditions when delegating, including the conditions that:
(a) the relevant powers are to be exercised exclusively by the committee to whom they delegate;
(b) no expenditure may be incurred on behalf of the charity except in accordance with a budget previously agreed with the directors.
(3) The directors may revoke or alter a delegation.
(4) All acts and proceedings of any committees must be fully and promptly reported to the directors.
Validity of directors’ decisions
46 (1) Subject to these articles, all acts done by a meeting of directors, or of a committee of directors, shall be valid notwithstanding the participation in any vote of a director:
(a) who was disqualified from holding office;
(b) who had previously retired or who had been obliged by the constitution to vacate office;
(c) who was not entitled to vote on the matter, whether by reason of a conflict of interests or otherwise;
(d) the vote of that director; and
(e) that director being counted in the quorum;
the decision has been made by a majority of the directors at a quorate meeting.
(2) These articles do not permit a director or a connected person to keep any benefit that may be conferred upon him or her subject to any qualification provided by these articles.
47 The directors must keep minutes of all:
(1) appointments of Officers made by the directors;
(2) proceedings at meetings of the charity;
(3) meetings of the directors and committees of directors including:
(a) the names of the directors present at the meeting;
(b) the decisions made at the meetings; and
(c) where appropriate the reasons for the decisions.
48 (1) The directors must prepare for each financial year accounts as required by the Companies Acts. The accounts must be prepared to show a true and fair view and follow accounting standards issued or adopted by the Accounting Standards Board or its successors and adhere to the recommendations of applicable Statements of Recommended Practice.
(2) The directors must keep accounting records as required by the Companies Acts.
(3) The Directors shall arrange for the publication of the annual accounts on the website after they have been examined or audited.
Annual Report and Return and Register of Charities
49 (1) The directors must comply with the requirements of the Charities Act 2011 with regard to the:
(a) transmission of a copy of the statements of account to the Commission;
(b) preparation of an Annual Report and the transmission of a copy of it to the Commission;
(c) preparation of an Annual Return and its transmission to the Commission.
(2) The directors must notify the Commission promptly of any changes to the charity’s entry on the Central Register of Charities.
Means of communication to be used
50 (1) Subject to the articles, anything sent or supplied by or to the charity under the articles may be sent or supplied in any way in which the Companies Acts provide for documents or information which are authorised or required by any provision of the Acts to be sent or supplied by or to the charity.
(2) Subject to the articles, any notice or document to be sent or supplied to a director in connection with the taking of decisions by directors may also be sent or supplied by the means by which that director has asked to be sent or supplied with such notices or documents for the time being.
51 Any notice to be given to or by any person pursuant to the articles:
(1) must be in writing; or
(2) must be given in electronic form.
52 (1) The charity may give any notice to a member either:
(a) personally; or
(b) by sending it by post in a prepaid envelope addressed to the member at his or her address; or
(c) by leaving it at the address of the member; or
(d) by giving it in electronic form to the member’s address.
(e) by placing the notice on a website and providing the person with a notification in writing or in electronic form of the presence of the notice on the website. The notification must state that it concerns a notice of a company meeting and must specify the place date and time of the meeting.
(2) A member who does not register an address with the charity or who registers only a postal address that is not within the United Kingdom shall not be entitled to receive any notice from the charity.
53 A member present in person at any meeting of the charity shall be deemed to have received notice of the meeting and of the purposes for which it was called.
54 (1) Certification that an envelope containing a notice was properly addressed, prepaid and posted shall be conclusive evidence that the notice was given.
(2) Proof that an electronic form of notice was given shall be conclusive where the company can demonstrate that it was properly addressed and sent, in accordance with the Companies Acts.
(3) In accordance with the Companies Acts notice shall be deemed to be given:
(a) 48 hours after the envelope containing it was posted; or
(b) in the case of an electronic form of communication, 48 hours after it was sent.
55 (1) The charity may indemnify any director against any liability incurred by him or her or it in that capacity, to the extent permitted by the Companies Acts.
(2) In this article a ‘relevant director’ means any director or former director of the charity.
56 (1) The directors may from time to time make such reasonable and proper rules or bye-laws as they may deem necessary or expedient for the proper conduct and management of the charity.
(2) The bye-laws may regulate the following matters but are not restricted to them:
(a) the admission of members of the charity (including the admission of organisations to membership) and the rights and privileges of such members, and the entrance fees, subscriptions and other fees or payments to be made by members;
(b) the conduct of members of the charity in relation to one another, and to the charity’s employees and volunteers;
(c) the setting aside of the whole or any part or parts of the charity’s premises at any particular time or times or for any particular purpose or purposes;
(d) the procedure at general meetings and meetings of the directors in so far as such procedure is not regulated by the Companies Acts or by the articles;
(e) generally, all such matters as are commonly the subject matter of company rules.
(3) The directors have the power to alter, add to or repeal the bye-laws.
(4) The directors must adopt such means as they think sufficient to bring the bye-laws to the notice of members of the charity.
(5) The bye-laws shall be binding on all members of the charity. No bye-law shall be inconsistent with, or shall affect or repeal anything contained in, the articles.
57 If a dispute arises between members of the company about the validity or propriety of anything done by the members of the company under these articles, and the dispute cannot be resolved by agreement, the parties to the dispute must first try in good faith to settle the dispute by mediation before resorting to litigation.
58 (1) The members of the charity may at any time before, and in expectation of, its dissolution resolve that any net assets of the charity after all its debts and liabilities have been paid, or provision has been made for them, shall on or before the dissolution of the charity be applied or transferred in any of the following ways:
(a) directly for the Objects; or
(b) by transfer to any charity or charities for purposes similar to the Objects; or
(c) to any charity or charities for use for particular purposes that fall within the Objects.
(2) Subject to any such resolution of the members of the charity, the directors of the charity may at any time before and in expectation of its dissolution resolve that any net assets of the charity after all its debts and liabilities have been paid, or provision made for them, shall on or before dissolution of the charity be applied or transferred:
(a) directly for the Objects; or
(b) by transfer to any charity or charities for purposes similar to the Objects; or
(c) to any charity or charities for use for particular purposes that fall within the Objects.
(3) In no circumstances shall the net assets of the charity be paid to or distributed among the members of the charity (except to a member that is itself a charity) and if no resolution in accordance with these articles is passed by the members or the directors the net assets of the charity shall be applied for charitable purposes as directed by the Court or the Commission.
59 In these articles, ‘connected person’ means:
(1) a child, parent, grandchild, grandparent, brother or sister of the director;
(2) the spouse or civil partner of the director or any of the above;
(3) a person carrying on business in partnership with the director or with any connected person;
(4) an institution which is controlled –
(a) by the director or any connected person; or
(b) by two or more connected persons when taken together
(5) a body corporate in which –
(a) the director or any connected person has a substantial interest; or
(b) two or more connected persons who, when taken together, have a substantial interest.
(c) The Charities Act 2011 apply for the purposes of interpreting the terms used in this sub-clause.